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奈良真实性文件

2017-04-28 16:29 来源: 中国遗产网

1994年国际古迹遗址理事会(ICOMOS)在日本奈良开会,通过关于遗产真实性的《奈良真实性文件》。

序言

1. 作为奈良(日本)会议全体专家,我等兹在此感谢日本当局的慷慨精神与学术勇气,为我们适时提供了此论坛,使我们得以挑战遗产保护领域的传统思想,并就拓展视野的方式与手段展开辩论,以使得我们在遗产保护实践中赋予文化与遗产多样性更多的尊重。

2. 我们也希望,籍此对世界遗产委员会所提出的讨论框架的价值表示认可。该框架旨在以全面尊重所有社会的社会与文化价值的方式来验证真实性,并检验被列入《世界遗产名录》的文化资产的普遍性价值。

3. 《奈良真实性文件》乃是孕育于1964年《威尼斯宪章》的精神,并以此为基础加以了延伸,以响应当代世界文化遗产关注与利益范围的不断拓展。

4. 在一个日益受到全球化以及同质化力量影响的世界,在一个时有藉由侵略性民族主义与压制少数民族的文化以获取文化认同的世界,在保护实践中纳入真实性考虑具有重要的作用,可厘清并阐明人类的集体记忆。

文化多样性与遗产多样性

5.整个世界的文化与遗产多样性对所有人类而言都是一项无可替代的丰富的精神与知识源泉。我们必须积极推动世界文化与遗产多样性的保护和强化,将其作为人类发展不可或缺的一部分。

6. 文化遗产的多样性存在于时间与空间之中,需要对其他文化及其信仰系统的各个方面予以尊重。在文化价值出现冲突的情况下,对文化多样性的尊重则意味着需要认可所有各方的文化价值的合理性。

7. 所有的文化与社会都是根植于以有形与无形手段表现出来的特殊形式和方法,这些形式和方法构成了他们的遗产,应该受到尊重。

8. 其中至关重要的是强调任何一种文化遗产都是所有人类的共同遗产这一联合国教科文组织的基本原则。对文化遗产的责任和管理首先应该是归属于其所产生的文化社区,接着是照看这一遗产的文化社区。然而,除这些责任之外,在决定相关原则与责任时,还应该遵守为文化遗产保护而制订的国际公约与宪章。所有社区都需要尽量在不损伤其基本文化价值的情况下,在自身的要求与其他文化社区的要求之间达成平衡。

价值与真实性

1. 对文化遗产的所有形式与历史时期加以保护是遗产价值的根本。我们了解这些价值的能力部分取决于这些价值的信息来源是否真实可靠。对这些与文化遗产的最初与后续特征有关的信息来源及其意义的认识与了解是全面评估真实性的必备基础。

2.《威尼斯宪章》所探讨及认可的真实性是有关价值的基本要素。对于真实性的了解在所有有关文化遗产的科学研究、保护与修复规划以及《世界遗产公约》与其它遗产名单收录程序中都起着至关重要的基本作用。

3. 一切有关文化项目价值以及相关信息来源可信度的判断都可能存在文化差异,即使在相同的文化背景内,也可能出现不同。因此不可能基于固定的标准来进行价值性和真实性评判。反之,出于对所有文化的尊重,必须在相关文化背景之下来对遗产项目加以考虑和评判。

4. 因此,在每一种文化内部就其遗产价值的具体性质以及相关信息来源的真实性和可靠性达成共识就变得极其重要和迫切。

5. 取决于文化遗产的性质、文化语境、时间演进,真实性评判可能会与很多信息来源的价值有关。这些来源可包括很多方面,譬如形式与设计、材料与物质、用途与功能、传统与技术、地点与背景、精神与感情以及其它内在或外在因素。使用这些来源可对文化遗产的特定艺术、历史、社会和科学维度加以详尽考察。

附录一

后续建议(由H. Stovel 提议)

1. 对文化与遗产多样性的尊重需要有意识的努力,避免在试图界定或判断特定纪念物或历史场所的真实性时套用机械化的公式或标准化的程序。

2. 以尊重文化与遗产多样性的态度来判断真实性需要采取一定的方法,鼓励不同文化针对其性质和需求制订出特定的分析过程与工具。这些方法可能会有以下共同点:

努力确保在真实性评估中纳入跨学科合作,恰当利用所有可用的专业技术和知识;

努力确保相关价值真正代表了一个文化与其兴趣的多样性,尤其是纪念物与历史场所;

努力清晰记录有关纪念物与历史场所的真实性的特殊性质,作为未来开展处理与监控的实用性指南;

努力根据不断变化的价值和环境对真实性评估加以更新;

3. 尤其重要的是努力确保相关价值受到尊重,且尽量在决策中形成与这些价值有关的跨学科及社区统一意见。

4. 这些方法还应该建立在有志于文化遗产保护的所有各方的国际合作基础上,并进一步推动这一合作,以促进全世界对每一种文化的多样化表达和价值的尊重与了解。

5. 将此对话延伸并拓展到全世界不同区域与文化是提升人类共同遗产保护的真实性的实用价值的必要前提。

6. 增进公众对遗产的了解对于获得保护历史痕迹的切实措施很有必要。这意味着在增进对这些文化资产自身价值的了解的同时,也要尊重这些纪念物与历史场所在当代社会所扮演的角色。

附录二

定义

保护:是指所有旨在了解一项遗产,掌握其历史和意义,确保其自然形态,并在必要时进行修复和增强的行为。(文化遗产包括《世界遗产公约》第一条所定义的具有文化价值的纪念物、建筑群与历史场所)。

信息来源:可使人了解文化遗产的性质、规范、意义与历史的所有物质的、书面的、口述的与图像的来源。


THE NARA DOCUMENT ON AUTHENTICITY  

Preamble 

 1.We, the experts assembled in Nara (Japan), wish to acknowledge the generous spirit and intellectual courage of the Japanese authorities in providing a timely forum in which we could challenge conventional thinking in the conservation field, and debate ways and means of broadening our horizons to bring greater respect for cultural and heritage diversity to conservation practice. 

 2. We also wish to acknowledge the value of the framework for discussion provided by the World Heritage Committee's desire to apply the test of authenticity in ways which accord full respect to the social and cultural values of all societies, in examining the outstanding universal value of cultural properties proposed for the World Heritage List. 

 3. The Nara Document on Authenticity is conceived in the spirit of the Charter of Venice, 1963, and builds on it and extends it in response to the expanding scope of cultural heritage concerns and interests in our contemporary world. 

 4. In a world that is increasingly subject to the forces of globalization and homogenization, and in a world in which the search for cultural identity is sometimes pursued through aggressive nationalism and the suppression of the cultures of minorities, the essential contribution made by the consideration of authenticity in conservation practice is to clarify and illuminate the collective memory of humanity. 

 Cultural Diversity and Heritage Diversity 

 5. The diversity of cultures and heritage in our world is an irreplaceable source of spiritual and intellectual richness for all humankind. The protection and enhancement of cultural and Heritage diversity in our world should be actively promoted as an essential aspect of human development. 

 6. Cultural heritage diversity exists in time and space, and demands respect for other cultures and all aspects of their belief systems. In cases where cultural values appear to be in conflict, respect for cultural diversity demands acknowledgment of the legitimacy of the cultural values of all parties. 

 7. All cultures and societies are rooted in the particular forms and means of tangible and intangible expression which constitute their heritage, and these should be respected. 

 8. It is important to underline a fundamental principle of UNESCO, to the effect that the cultural heritage of each is the cultural heritage of all. Responsibility for cultural heritage and the management of it belongs, in the first place, to the cultural community that has generated it, and subsequently to that which cares for it. However, in addition to these responsibilities, adherence to the international charters and conventions developed for conservation of cultural heritage also obliges consideration of the principles and responsibilities flowing from them. Balancing their own requirements with those of other cultural communities is, for each community, highly desirable, provided achieving this balance does not undermine their fundamental cultural values. 

 Values and authenticity 

 9. Conservation of cultural heritage in all its forms and historical periods is rooted in the values attributed to the heritage. Our ability to understand these values depends, in part, on the degree to which information sources about these values may be understood as credible or truthful. Knowledge and understanding of these sources of information, in relation to original and subsequent characteristics of the cultural heritage, and their meaning, is a requisite basis for assessing all aspects of authenticity. 

 10. Authenticity, considered in this way and affirmed in the Charter of Venice, appears as the essential qualifying factor concerning values. The understanding of authenticity plays a fundamental role in all scientific studies of the cultural heritage, in conservation and restoration planning, as well as within the inscription procedures used for the World Heritage Convention and other cultural heritage inventories. 

 11. All judgments’ about values attributed to cultural properties as well as the credibility of related information sources may differ from culture to culture, and even within the same culture.It is thus not possible to base judgments of values and authenticity within fixed criteria. On the contrary, the respect due to all cultures requires that heritage properties must considered and judged within the cultural contexts to which they belong. 

 12. Therefore, it is of the highest importance and urgency that, within each culture, recognition be accorded to the specific nature of its heritage values and the credibility and truthfulness of related information sources. 

 13. Depending on the nature of the cultural heritage, its cultural context, and its evolution through time, authenticity judgments’ may be linked to the worth of a great variety of sources of information. Aspects of the sources may include form and design, materials and substance, use and function, traditions and techniques, location and setting, and spirit and feeling, and other internal and external factors. The use of these sources permits elaboration of the specific artistic, historic, social, and scientific dimensions of the cultural heritage being examined. 

 Definitions 

 CONSERVATION: all operations designed to understand a property, know its history and meaning, ensure its material safeguard, and, if required, its restoration and enhancement. 

 INFORMATION SOURCES: all physical, written, oral, and figurative sources which make it possible to know the nature, specificities, meaning, and history of the cultural heritage... 

 The Nara Document on Authenticity was drafted by the 35 participants at the Nara Conference on Authenticity in Relation to the World Heritage Convention, held at Nara, Japan, from 1-6 November 1993, at the invitation of the Agency for Cultural Affairs (Government of Japan) and the Nara Prefecture. 

 The Agency organized the Nara Conference in cooperation with UNESCO, ICCROM and ICOMOS. 

 This final version of the Nara Document has been edited by the general rapporteurs of the Nara Conference, 

 Mr. Raymond Lemaire, and Mr. Herb Stovel.


[ 编辑: 罗力业 ]
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